Restrictive covenants, such as non-compete, non-solicitation, or confidentiality clauses, are agreements entered into between employers and employees that restrict an employee’s ability to engage in certain other employment activities—such as competing with the employer, soliciting the employer’s employees or customers, or disclosing the employer’s confidential information—typically following the conclusion of their employment relationship.  In some states, restrictive covenants are generally not enforceable; in other states, covenants that are overbroad or unreasonable in duration or scope may be deemed unenforceable; finally, in some other states, overbroad or unreasonable covenants may be “blue-penciled” (i.e., re-written by a court to be more reasonable, and enforced as re-written).  Violation of a restrictive covenant can subject an individual to substantial civil liability, and prevent his or her ability to engage in certain subsequent employment activities.